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“La tourmente arabe ” – Gilles Kepel

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Hérodote. 2016, 160-161(1), p. 85-96.; La Découverte, 2016. Language: French, Base de données: Cairn.info

Au plus près des développements récents, mais nourri d’une intime connaissance des mouvements qui animent le monde arabe depuis l’espoir de la renaissance, la nadha, jusqu’à l’échec du panarabisme et la défaite de la plupart des révolutions démocratiques commencées en 2011, Gilles Kepel brosse ici une vaste fresque qui éclaire la complexité de l’échiquier sur lequel se déploie la fitna, la guerre au sein de l’islam, qui n’oppose pas seulement sunnites et chiites, mais aussi, au sein du monde sunnite, les radicaux et les partisans d’une nécessaire relecture des textes, les Frères musulmans et les salafistes, les salafistes saoudiens et Daech, la nouvelle menace. Un échiquier sur lequel interviennent États et acteurs non étatiques arabes, classes et clans, mais aussi des puissances régionales non arabes, Turquie et Iran, et des puissances extérieures, États-Unis, Russie, États européens. Dans ce contexte, moteur de mouvements massifs de réfugiés vers l’Europe, ciblée par des attentats visant, en interne, ce que Daech appelle le « ventre mou de l’Occident », aucun projet mobilisateur ne dessine pour l’heure une sortie par le haut, ni au Moyen-Orient, ni en Europe, où les courants islamophobes se renforcent.

Informed by recent developments, and fed by a deep knowledge of the history of Arab movements, from the expected renaissance (nadha) to the collapse of Pan-Arabism and the failure of most of the democratic revolutions launched from 2011, Gilles Kepel analyses here the complex chessboard where fitna, the war within Islam, is today conducted, not only between Sunnis and Shias, but also between radicals and reformists, between the Muslim Brotherhood and the Salafists, between the Saudi Wahhabis and Daech, the new threat. Classes and clans, States and non-state actors are at play, along with regional non-Arab powers (Iran, Turkey) and external powers the US, Russia and European States. This context of turmoil generates massive movements of refugees going to Europe, which is seen by Daech as the soft belly of the West, and an easy target for home born terrorists. For the time being, no strong mobilisation project seems to emerge for getting out of the impasse, be it in the Middle East, as the Syrian chaos testifies to, or in Europe itself, where Islamophobia is more and more mobilised by populist parties, for electoral gains.HER_160_0085_Gilles Kepel_La tourmente arabeDownload

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